5S every day, not just once a month!

5S every day

A colleague who works in logistics is responsible for two warehouses in the same city.  Both sites have been implementing 5S.  One of them has been successful, while the other is not.  He asks me how it is possible to have different results.  Although both locations received the same training and support, their implementation approach was different.  Only one of those teams was practicing 5S every day.  

Change behaviors to do 5S every day

Have you ever tried to lose weight?  How well did it go?  I tried many times with no sustainable results until I learn what I was doing wrong.  Each time I failed; I was following a diet.  I treated my weight loss as individual events with a common goal.  However, healthy eating is for every day, not for special occasions.   It wasn’t until I change my eating habits that were able to lose weight for good.

Like with weight loss, 5S will not be successful until people build new behaviors.  Get used to putting things back in their place immediately after use takes time.  After all, it’s easier to leave things where you last used them.  The problem is to remember where that was.  For sustainable results, you have to change that behavior by creating new habits.

5S is an activity to practice every day, throughout the day.  Before launching the program, leadership needs to agree on how to achieve the fifth S, sustain.  The effort requires the participation of all site leaders.  Everybody needs to walk the workplace every day to verify cleanliness and organization conditions.  If shadow boards have empty spots, it means that tools are out of place.  If the material is missing from their allocated staging floor areas, it means that material is missing.  For instance, those examples represent future problems, either searching time or delays.

How to create the habits

While setting up the materials and equipment, work on how to create new habits.  Ask the team how they could trigger the desired response.  Once they finish work, what will trigger putting the tools or equipment back on their location.  

For example, empty printer cartridges go inside a labeled box in the office supply room.  However, some people throw them in the trash or leave them in their office or cubicle.  To build the habit, add how to dispose of the cartridge as part of the instructions to change it.  Also, include what the trigger would be for this action.  For instance, a good time would be the completion of the printer testing.  After confirmation that the printer is working, take the old cartridge to its designated location.  The problem is that most people would decide to move it to a location later.  And then, they don’t remember.  

Sometimes, people convince themselves that it is better to put things back in their place at the end of the shift.   Ask questions to understand why they think that way.  Where they leave them throughout the day?  Are there any safety hazards?  Are they wasting time searching for them?  Maybe the designated area is not the best.  By working with the team to understand their reasons and creating a plan together, sustainability will have a better chance.  

At times, like in the printer cartridge example, it makes sense to compromise.  For example, have a mailbox by the door or entrance.  They see it while walking out, take it, and move it to its place.

After launching the program, sustain it with 5S every day

That is the difference between the warehouse teams.  One group completed all the kick-off event preparation in detail.  After that, they completed the first three steps, leaving the areas with temporary marks.  They planned to test locations and quantities before making them permanent. The problem is the responsible parties never follow-up.  At that time, those temporary marks became permanent.  And then, when things didn’t go as planned, people were discouraged to continue.

At the same time, the other team follows similar planning and initial execution steps.  The only difference was that as part of their plan, they agreed on triggers for 5S activities.  The senior supervisor and his team had on their leader standard work a daily 5S walk.  They also had a board where they mark their visits and top three observations.  This information was part of the daily huddle meetings.   Also, the leadership group makes a point to acknowledge at least one positive comment every day.  That simple action helps to enforce the desired behavior.  For instance, supervisors celebrate each program milestone and recognize groups or individuals that achieve their 5S goals.

Forklift operators and clerks have their triggers for 5S activities as well.  For example, lunch break is one of the triggers for the operators.  With this one, they know it is time to park and charge their truck in one of the designated spaces.  

By identifying what will signal the start of each 5S task, the group initiates to build the habit of doing 5S every day, all day.  This way, their program for housekeeping and organization became a daily activity.  They created new behaviors to ensure sustainability.  For the other warehouse, it happens only when the warehouse was a mess or visitors were coming.  

How to build a user story map

build a user story map to visualize the customer journey

A user story is a short and simple description of the product or service from the customer’s lenses. You can use this tool to map the primary steps in the customer journey and design the best experience.  How do you build a user story map?  First, take a look at the steps below.  After that, let’s discuss each one at a time.

Steps to build a user story map

  1. Identify the problem
  2. Understand your customers
  3. Map user activities
  4. Map user stories under user activities
  5. Rank stories from most important to least important
  6. Identify roadblocks
  7. Create your execution plan 

Before you build a user story map, understand the problem you want to fix and your customers

Before you start mapping, there are two things you need to know.  First, what is the problem you are seeking to solve?  In other words, what problem your product or service is helping your customers to overcome.   Answer this with as much level of detail as you can.  Look at the problem from the customer’s lenses.  Knowing their pain points or motivations helps to understand what has value for them.  

Identify who would be the primary user or customer.  Who is your target audience?  Likely, there will be more than one, and each will have different goals and motivations.  Also, they will have different ways of interacting with your product or service.  For that reason, it is critical to determine who is the primary audience.  Focus your design efforts with this group in mind.

What are the user activities and their stories?

User activities are broad descriptions of how the user interacts with your product or service.  In other words, they are general steps that the user follows to complete the process from beginning to end.  These activities are the backbone of the user story map.  

You can draw the map using one of the diverse options.  Examples are drawing on a whiteboard, using sticky notes, or with one of the various software tools available.  Regardless of the format, you decide to use, remember to update the map as you make changes throughout the designing or execution process.

When you build a user story map, prioritize the stories

Stories are the sequence of tasks to complete each activity.  Draw each array underneath the corresponded activity.  When you see those stories together, you will visualize the customer journey.  Stories are like a medium-level flow process map.  Sometimes it is helpful to visualize one step down in the process.  You can do that in the user story map, with sub-tasks.  However, use sub-tasks only when they help to visualize possible challenges or roadblocks. 

Once all the stories are in place, it is time to prioritize them.  Do so by ranking them vertically, leaving the most important ones at the top.  In the example below, I draw them horizontally instead of vertically.  If you choose to do it this way, remember to rank them from left to right.  Think about which one of these stories has more value for the customer.   

build a user story map

The same example but using vertical ranking would look like this.

Identify challenges and roadblocks before creating the execution plan

After prioritization, it is time to look at the customer journey flow again.  Put yourself in the place of the customer or user.  Do you see any problem?  Think of it there is a step or feature you need or most have that is not there.  Moreover, see if you can identify anything that the customer should or could have. 

Following this exercise, put your designer hat on and check for missing information or possible bottlenecks.  Identify any challenge or roadblock during execution.  That is, look for potential trouble and mitigate them by creating solutions ahead of time.

At this point, all you need to do is add the plan.  Based on priorities, budget, and other considerations, you decide how you would execute the plan.  Sometimes it makes sense to divide it into phases.  This way, you can plan for what is most important first.

Conclusion

User story maps are a tool that allows teams to visualize the story of the customer journey.  It is helpful to break those stories into smaller parts.  Therefore, it is easier to prioritize and identify challenges.  In other words, user story mapping help to design better products or services from the customer’s lenses.  After all, a product or service designed from the customer’s view has more chances of success.

User story map, what is it?

build the customer journey with a user story map

In a continuous improvement environment, the customer is who defined the value of a product or service.  If you are thinking about launching a new product or service, you may need to create the user story map first.  This tool will help you to visualize the customer journey.

What is a user story map?

User story mapping is a tool used in software development to identify the work that will create the best user experience.  Through the use of this tool, teams understand their customer needs better.  The structure is similar to the swim-lane chart.  It uses horizontal lanes for activities, tasks, sub-tasks, and priorities.  Each activity has a column with its duties or stories drawn below.   The example below is my version of the user story map.

user story map

Although it is a software development tool, you can use a user story map in other settings.  No product or service will be successful unless designed with the customer in mind.  A user story is a short and simple description of the product or service from the customer’s lenses.  Therefore, it is a good idea to use a user story map before you execute your plan.

Steps to create a user story map

  1. Identify the problem
  2. Understand your customers
  3. Map user activities
  4. Map user stories under user activities
  5. Rank stories from most important to least important
  6. Identify roadblocks
  7. Create your execution plan 

Benefits of this type of mapping

If you are a product manager or an entrepreneur, this exercise will help define the work or activities that would create a good customer experience.  While mapping the customer journey, you will have the following benefits.

  • By defining the problem that you expected to solve with your product or service, you get clear objectives.
  • Design the product or service from the customer’s lenses, which ensures the desired experience.  
  • By identifying major steps in the customer journey, you will understand better the essential tasks.
  • Another benefit is that you can organize and prioritize those tasks for better plan execution.  
  • While drawing the customer story, the team can identify challenges or roadblocks. 
  • Also, they will have the chance to see opportunities to improve.  
  • By creating the story map as a group, you are promoting teamwork and collaboration.  

Different uses for a story map

These are some examples of areas where you can use a story map.  

  • While writing an article, blog post, or book, you start with what question do you want to answer?  Tailor your writing style to your audience by knowing who they would be.  Your activities are your book chapters or article headings and sub-headings.  If you have too many headings, prioritize to decide what to include and what to left out.
  • During my years facilitating training, I found out that people learn better when you tell them a story.  Moreover, it is more effective when they can relate to the story.  For that reason, this type of map is helpful to design a successful learning experience.  With it, you can visualize the trainee’s needs and identify challenges.
  • For new product development, it is necessary to understand your users and the problem you want to solve.  There is no time for guessing the right story or workflow for your design.  
  • It works well to design a new service as well.
  • You can define and divide any project into activities, tasks, and sub-tasks.

To sum up

User story mapping is a great tool to visualize the work needed from the customer’s lenses.  Although it is known as an agile tool, it is helpful to design a product or service.  The focus of the design process is the customer, as it should be.  The story map tells the story of the customer’s problem and the activities to solve it.  In other words, it explains the customer experience.

A story map is not written in stone.  Just like standards, they are live documents that should reflect what is happening in real life.  Include all changes and additions in the map as soon as possible.   In the next blog, I will explain how to build your user story map.

Keep it simple! Processes, training, everything.

keep it simple! Simple procedures and communication is easier to understand and follow.

A company culture transformation is an undertaking.  You will attempt to break with old habits and mental models.  Also, you will introduce new ones.  For that reason, you and your leadership team will make many decisions regarding what to do and how to do it.  Later, there will be a lot of communication, skills development, training, and new standards.  While teaching new behaviors, mental models, and ways to do things, keep it simple.

For a successful transformation, keep it simple

Along the transformation journey, you and your team will have countless communication efforts. That communication will happen in different scenarios and formats.  In other words, individual or group settings, in writing or verbal.  Also, you will write new policies, standards, work instructions, and others.  The purpose of the communication or procedures and other details needs to clear.  Keep the receiver or user in mind while deciding the language, design, or communication structure.  Moreover, it needs to be simple, easy to understand and execute.

If you can’t explain it simply, take a step back.

“If you can’t explain something simply, you don’t understand it well enough.” 

Albert Einstein

Any continuous improvement activity starts with gaining an understanding of the current situation. The cultural transformation begins with a similar process, understanding the present culture.  The knowledge gain during this step helps to design the best way to share with the team the intention to change.

Why do you want to engage in the transformation process?  Why you propose to use continuous improvement?  What are the steps?  A long and hard thinking process is required to answer these questions in a simple way.  Refine your thoughts, do not use too many words, do not overthink.  Be honest and talk from your heart without fancy words or excuses, just the truth.

You are not ready to communicate this idea until you can say it in simple words.  

Keep it simple, all of the processes, language, structures, and formats.

Simple language is easier for the reader or receiver.  For instance, try to avoid the use of technical words unless it is necessary.  The same rule goes for industry jargon.  For example, in continuous improvement, we use many Japanese terms like kaizen.  Depending on the current culture, you should use generally accepted American words as a substitute.  In our previous example, you can use continuous improvement or rapid improvement events instead of kaizen.

While teaching new tools, use simple structures.  Further, give examples of things related to their work.  Things are complicated enough as it is, keep it simple.  Processes that are easy to understand have more probability of sustainability.  It is much easier to execute simple instructions than complicated words.  

Summary

Trying to explain something complex is often a humbling experience.  It makes you realize how much you don’t know.  Therefore, it forces you to break the subject into smaller pieces and understand each one of them.  When you think you know the process well enough, try to explain it with simple words. Would your five years old self understand?  If the answer is no, then keep refining your thoughts, keep improving your pitch.  

Simplicity avoids confusion, and processes are easier to execute consistently.  Don’t complicate it, keep it simple. 

Time studies and continuous improvement

time studies and continuous improvement

From everything I learned while studying industrial engineering, time study is what I have to use the most.  Time studies and continuous improvement have always been part of my job. Early in my career, I use time studies to establish or update time standards.    Later on, when I started to learn and practice CI, time studies were part of the data collection process.  This time, the time study was a component of the process to define the problem under analysis.  

Numerous times in my career, I found well-intended people trying to do formal time studies as part of kaizen or continuous improvement activity.  There is no need to complicate your life.  Nevertheless, it is necessary to follow some basic rules to ensure satisfactory data collection.

Time studies and time standards

Time study or work measurement is a method to establish an allowed time to perform a given task.  Frederick Taylor envisioned industrial engineers using time and motion studies to determine the best way to do the job.  Standardized work and cycle time reduction are two more of Taylor’s innovations.  

While establishing a time standard, industrial engineers would use a detailed process to observe and analyze the method and measure time.  The standard calculation includes rating the operator’s performance and applying for allowances.   This type of time study seeks to establish a standard used for manufacturing cost and wage calculations.  They need to be specific and accurate.  The focus is on the process, looking to reduce the cycle and make it more efficient.

Time studies and continuous improvement

On the other hand, when using time studies in continuous improvement, you don’t need to rate performance or use allowances.  You are not trying to create a time standard.  The purpose is to see if the changes are moving the needle in the right direction.  The focus is on the operator and how to reduce his/her pain points.  How can you make the work easier and safer?  While doing that, you will reduce the cycle time, but that is not the priority.  

Although you won’t need to calculate a standard time at this point, you need good data.  For that, there are a few steps that you need to follow.  Talk with the operator who is completing the process.  Explain why you are there and clarify that you will measure the process, not the person.  Observe the process and ask questions to understand what he or she is doing.  Also, look at the flow of materials and/or the information and learned about the pain points. Your objective is to eliminate waste.

This preliminary work will help you to get familiar with the process.  Once you are familiar with it, you can divide it into general steps for further time measurement.  You to measure how long it takes to complete a process, before and after the improvements. 

Keep it simple

Learning is always better when you keep things simple.  Concepts that are too complicated may distract you from the real purpose of the exercise.  All you want to accomplish is to get data to compare if the proposed improvements reduce the cycle.  

There are many other ways to improve a process besides cycle reduction.  Focus on finding the waste within the process.  Then look for ways to eliminate or reduce it.  Waste reduction will reduce the cycle time while making the process easier, minimize errors, eliminate waiting times, and others. There are two key things for sustainable improvements.  First, you need participation from the team doing the work.  Nobody knows the process better than them.  Second, the focus of the improvement efforts is always the customers, internal and external.

SDCA, what it is, and when you should use it.

SDCA, is it the same as PDCA? The PDCA cycle provides a structure for problem-solving as and continuous improvement. At the beginning of the journey, it is highly probable that the operation needs stabilization.  The three pillars of continuous improvement, 5S, standardization, and waste identification-elimination are the right tools for that job.  To improve a process we need a standard first.

Where there is no standard, there can be no kaizen. Taiichi Ohno

SDCA is used when there is no standard

What happens when there is no standard?  Although a standard does not exist, you know the desired outcome for the process.  When this outcome is not achieved consistently, you can conclude that the process is not stable.  In that case, first, you need to establish the standard. Second, you need to stabilize the process. And third, you start to improve it.  To create the standard, you use SDCA. This is a similar process to PDCA. The steps are Standardize, Do, Check, Act.  

Standardization

Standardization is the practice of setting, communicating, following, and improving standards and standard work.  To establish the standard, which is the first step on this cycle, you will use collective knowledge, the best-known easier and safer way to meet the customer needs.  Remember that we want to provide the customer with the highest quality product or service, at the lowest cost, in a shorter time.  Once the standard exists, it is critical to ensure adherence to it.  Everybody has to follow it every day to achieve consistency.  

The process of establishing the standard is done with the participation of the employees who perform the task. A supervisor or team leader should write the standard. It is recommended to follow the guidelines from the Job Instruction Training and Job Methods.

What happens next?

The last three steps of the SDCA cycle are similar to what we know from PDCA.  Do refer to putting the standard into place, Check means to verify the effectiveness to meet expectations, and Act is to complete all documentation and training necessary to make the standard official.  This last step is now the existing standard and becomes the benchmark for improvement.

Only when the standard is established, followed, and stable, you move on to improve it.  In summary, the standards cycle is, create a new standard, stabilize, improve, repeat.

What is a swim-lane map? When do you use it?

swim-lane process map

The third type of map in our process mapping series is the swim-lane.  Other names for it are process flow map and cross-functional flow chart.  This process flow map allows you to identify the duties and responsibilities of different departments or functions in a single process and see how they relate to each other.  It displays how the process flows using a table format similar to swim-lanes. It shows the departments in a vertical lane and functions or objectives in a horizontal direction, or vice versa. 

Swim-lane maps make it easier to visualize the responsibilities, duties, and objectives of each department. Also, it helps to see the bottlenecks and redundancies of the process.  Its use is common in the supply chain, sales, marketing, and product development.

When do you use a swim-lane map?

  • The purpose of this type of map is to document processes, so people who are part of it understand the flow and how they affect others.
  • You need to clarify the responsibilities of complex processes, like those indicated above.
  • To improve communication and collaboration by giving the participants the chance to see how their work affects others and identify how their work is attached to the final product.
  • You need to understand the input and output for each function or department.

How to draw a swim-lane map

  1. Get a cross-functional team of process owners, about 5 to 10 people.
  2. Clarify the purpose or the objective.  What do you want to see or get from the map?  This step will help to facilitate the process and provides focus on the activity.
  3. Present the symbols for a process step, decision points, connectors, and others.
  4. Define the process mapping scope, what are the first and last steps.
  5. Label the map with the process name, date, and map scope.
  6. Draw a table in a whiteboard or using flip charts and mark the lines to create the swim-lane effect.  
  7. List the functions or department names on the column or row heading as per your preference. 
  8. Start drawing the process flow in chronological order.  If more than one step happens at the same time, draw them parallel to each other.
  9. Connect all the steps and decision points following the flow.
  10. When you reach the end of the process, make a second pass to verify that all steps are included.  

More notes in drawing the map

You can draw your swim-lane in Word, Visio, or any other software that you prefer.  I like to use a whiteboard and 3 x 6 Post-it notes to makes it easier for group participation.  For each step, describe what is done in simple words using verbs or nouns.  When the header contains the department name, write the name of the function that performs the task in the note.   If it is relevant to the purpose of the mapping exercise, you can include metrics like process time or details like what system or program is used.

Identify the improvement opportunities, highlight those areas with too many handoffs, redundancy, waiting times, and others.  You can use PDCA to create the action plan, execute, and verify for effectiveness.  Reflect at the end of the exercise.  Was the objective accomplished?  What did you learn?  What do you need to communicate to all team members?  Get feedback from the team and improve the process mapping experience.  

What to do before, during, and after the gemba walk

Gemba walks, like any other process, need a consistent structure or standard.  It helps to avoid confusion, clarify the purpose and intent, and provides general steps that facilitate customization for specific situations without losing the essence of what a gemba walk is.  

The walks have three stages, which happen before, during, and after the walk.  When you coach your team to be walkers with a purpose, you become more effective, learning by doing.  The more you practice, the better you become.

Preparation

When you plan to go out for a gemba walk, the first thing you need to know is the purpose of the walk and to what area you will go.  Each walk needs a purpose or objective, which can be coaching, learn about a specific situation within a process, or looking for improvement opportunities.  Show respect for the owners of the area you are going to visit by letting them know in advance what is the purpose of your visit and how they can help.  Be honest about your intentions and clear about your expectations.  Right before the walk, take five minutes to explain the purpose and expectations of the walk to the team walking with you.   Remember that two of the walk benefits are to develop your team and drive alignment within the organization.

During the Walk

While walking, you will go and see, show respect, and ask what, then why. Understand the purpose of work and performance expectations. During the walk, observe if there is any gap between what is supposed to happen and what is happening.  Use the scientific process (PDCA) to identify the reasons and find the root cause.  As a leader, focus on the process as the source of errors, not the people.  

Ask what first, what is the purpose, what are the steps, or what are you trying to accomplish?  Asking those questions requires being mindful of how you are asking, not only your tone but your body language as well.  You want to show respect, listen to their words, be empathic, and let them feel that you care about their needs and feelings.  Make your actions consistent with your words, and do what you said you would do, be trustworthy.  

Once you gain an understanding of the situation, you can ask why questions.  While trying to gain a deeper understanding, it is appropriate to use the 5 Why technique.  

After the Walk

After the walk, take another five minutes to get an understanding of its effectiveness.  Listen to the observations and discussion points from the walkers.  Clarify any doubts and capture all observation and improvement ideas.  Get agreement on what improvements the group will work with and combine them into one list. Create a follow-up plan, who will work with what, and preliminary timeline. 

Do your best to stay focused on the agreed purpose of the walk.  Lead the walk in such a way that walkers understand that it is more effective if everybody focused on one thing at a time.  Unless you see something that is urgent, like a safety situation, do not deviate from the purpose agreed during the preparation stage.  Remember, continuous improvement works because it is focused on small improvements at a time. 

SDCA, what it is, and when you should use it.

SDCA, is it the same as PDCA? The PDCA cycle provides a structure for problem-solving as and continuous improvement. At the beginning of the journey, it is highly probable that the operation needs stabilization.  The three pillars of continuous improvement, 5S, standardization, and waste identification-elimination are the right tools for that job.  To improve a process we need a standard first.

Where there is no standard, there can be no kaizen. Taiichi Ohno

SDCA is used when there is no standard

What happens when there is no standard?  Although a standard does not exist, you know the desired outcome for the process.  When this outcome is not achieved consistently, you can conclude that the process is not stable.  In that case, first, you need to establish the standard. Second, you need to stabilize the process. And third, you start to improve it.  To create the standard, you use SDCA. This is a similar process to PDCA. The steps are Standardize, Do, Check, Act.  

Standardization

Standardization is the practice of setting, communicating, following, and improving standards and standard work.  To establish the standard, which is the first step on this cycle, you will use collective knowledge, the best-known easier and safer way to meet the customer needs.  Remember that we want to provide the customer with the highest quality product or service, at the lowest cost, in a shorter time.  Once the standard exists, it is critical to ensure adherence to it.  Everybody has to follow it every day to achieve consistency.  

The process of establishing the standard is done with the participation of the employees who perform the task. A supervisor or team leader should write the standard. It is recommended to follow the guidelines from the Job Instruction Training and Job Methods.

What happens next?

The last three steps of the SDCA cycle are similar to what we know from PDCA.  Do refer to putting the standard into place, Check means to verify the effectiveness to meet expectations, and Act is to complete all documentation and training necessary to make the standard official.  This last step is now the existing standard and becomes the benchmark for improvement.

Only when the standard is established, followed, and stable, you move on to improve it.  In summary, the standards cycle is, create a new standard, stabilize, improve, repeat.

Process Map, what is, when, and how to use it?

Process mapping is a visual way to show the steps to complete a process.  There are different types of maps that range from a very high overview level to a detailed overview level of the process.  Which one you use depends on the purpose of your analysis.   We already discuss the Value Stream Map and today is the turn for the Process Map or detailed process map.

A Process Map (PM) is a basic flow chart that presents the step’s sequence to complete a single process, showing all the inputs and outputs.  PM is a low-level chart used with the participation of supervisors and process owners.

When do you use it?

  • The purpose of this map is to document a process, analyze and manage workflows.  
  • You can use this type of map whenever you want to take a close look of a process workflow, focusing on the sequence of steps regardless of who or what department complete them.  
  • The map is a drill-down view of the process, which make it an excellent tool to see the input and output details of the process as well as the decision points.  
  • PMs are good to identify opportunities to eliminate, simplify, rearrange, or combine steps.
  • To create process improvement tactical plans. 

How to draw a Process Map?

  1. This is a team exercise, invite a multi-functional group to draw the map.  Those who provide input or receive the output of the process should be part of it.  
  2. Define the process boundaries.  What triggers the process?  What ends the process?
  3. Use a verb or noun format to list the sequence of steps to complete the process. For example, use, go to, search for, calculate, analyze, verify, and call.
  4. Include mental steps like thinking, analyzing, counting, and others.
  5. Keep asking what happens next, until you reach the end of the process.
  6. Write each step, including the trigger either on a sticky note or directly on a whiteboard.  Choose whatever method works best for you.  I like to use 4 x 6 sticky notes because they are big enough, and it is easier to edit the map if you need to add steps or rearrange them.   Plus, you don’t need a whiteboard, a clean wall will suffice.
  7. Watch for repetitive steps, like going back and forth between screens, copy and paste information on the same document several times.
  8. At the end, go through the map once again to ensure all steps are included.

While drawing the map, promote the participation of the entire group, create a comfortable environment where team members that do not know the process well feel free to ask questions without any fear.  For example, they can help writing the steps or place the notes on the wall or board.  As with any other continuous improvement activity, this is a learning exercise.  Facilitate the event in such a way that people understand the purpose and learn how to do it.  The idea is to promote the use of simple tools that can help them to present their ideas visually or to show the process to other people.

Now you have another tool to analyze your processes, learn how to use it and practice while improving!