CI Tools

What are the kaizen steps?

Previously I mentioned that PDCA is a good tool to standardize the kaizen event.  Today I will show you the general steps to do a kaizen event and how to use PDCA.  The following are the general steps to plan and execute a kaizen event.

  1. Understand the problem
  2. Plan the event
  3. Learn about the current state
  4. Design and test the new process
  5. Validate the results against objectives
  6. Modify the process if necessary
  7. Once we achieved results, standardize, train, and communicate
  8. Make further improvements, start over.

We learn before that the planning step is critical for problem-solving.  It is because, during that step, you are studying the problem to understand in detail what is happening, which includes finding the root cause for the situation.  

It is similar while planning a kaizen event.  You start by understanding the problem or situation.  You need to describe the problem as detailed as possible using the affected KPI’s, the process name, and its description. The charter document is very useful for kaizen planning.  It is important to identify all the key information to make the event a success.  It includes the scope, objectives, expected deliverables, team members with their roles, event dates, location, and basic information regarding the problem to tackle. These two steps are the equivalent to the Plan step of PDCA, the next two are the Do step.

The third step is to establish the current state, to draw a picture of the process as is.  For this, you need to know the process, the first and last step, steps sequence, and standards.  You also need to know the customer needs.  The golden rule to fix problems is to go where the value is created, observe, measure, and ask questions respectfully.  Identify waste, where the flow stops, safety hazards or risks, and quality concerns. The most important part of the PDCA cycle is understanding the problem.  While doing a kaizen, it is critical to understand the process, including the root cause of the problems identified.

Equipped with this information, you are ready to start designing the new process.  For this, start brainstorming possible solutions.  The target is to eliminate waste, improve quality, or reduce the cycle time.  Refine the list and select those ideas that are expected to have a bigger impact, and the team is able to do it during the allotted time frame.  Test the process, simulate the conditions of the new process, and measure the results.  Analyze the results vs. the objectives, validate if the process can achieve them.  Modify the process if you need, test, and measure as many times as it is necessary until the desired condition is reached.  If you noticed, this fourth step is following PDCA by itself, as shown in the figure below.

The kaizen step equivalent to Check is to validate the effectiveness of the new process.  The event is scheduled for one week or less, but sometimes you will have pending items that need to be finished later.  This step includes follow-up on the completion of those items.  It also includes a revision of the results to determine if the kaizen achieved its objectives.  Normally, this follow-up process happens 30 days after the completion of the event.  Similar to what happens in the previous step, if the new process falls short on the objectives, you follow PDCA to modify, measure, and adapt until the desired condition is reached.

The last step in the kaizen event is to evaluate the performance of the process.  Process monitoring should be part of the daily operation as well as discussion of gaps between standards and current results.  Daily kaizen should address problems in quality, safety, or delivery performance.  Remember, once the improved standard is stabilized, it is time to start the improvement process again.

CI 101

How do you align Kaizen with Business Objectives?

When you have specific business improvement goals as part of your Business Plan and strategies, it is easier to identify where you should focus on kaizen activities.  But even if this does not exist, you can still align your kaizen to your business goals.  Let’s take a look at how you would do it under each scenario.

Before I continue, I want to clarify something.    Previously I defined strategy as the framework that establishes what the organization will do to deliver value and how it expects to accomplish target revenues and profits.  However, it is common to use the word strategy while talking about the activity, policy, or process designed to achieve the objective.  For example, to support the objective increase in sales from x to y, the process or activity z (strategy) grow business by 10%.  To be consistent, I will use the activity or process to indicate the way to achieve the objectives.

When it’s time to develop next year’s goals, you group the business plan with the continuous improvement plan.  Achieving those goals means achieving the desired conditions for profitability, delivery, quality, and people.  From these statements of intent, you move to develop specific objectives, which are a clear target or destination.  To make your business map more effective, you also established what are you going to do to achieve them, and how you are going to do it.  At this time, you can identify in what department or area this activity will have more impact on the KPI’s and use the information to plan specific projects.  The kaizen events will help to achieve the objectives.  Kaizen is very powerful when used as a tool to improve the process to close the gap with the objective.   

When the business plan does not include the improvement plan, you can still align kaizen with it.  Your team is dealing with problems that impact productivity, quality, cost, and delivery.  Daily kaizen, and events, can help to overcome those challenges by improving the process and solving operational problems.  You can start doing daily kaizen at any time to start tackling their pain points, but some recurrent issues with high impact in the business deserve a kaizen event.

As always, you need to understand the problems first.  Talk with the team, key players, customers, and learn about their pain points, challenges, and needs.  A brainstorming session with the team would be a good start to generate ideas for possible kaizen events.   The next step is to validate those ideas, to see if they align with the objectives or drive the business KPI’s.  With a refined list of kaizens, the next step is to prioritize based on the effort vs. impact or benefits level.  After this, you are ready to start planning kaizen.

The important part for both processes is to align kaizen with the business objectives, which should target KPI’s that measure customer satisfaction, quality, delivery, and cost.  Let’s keep improving!

CI Tools

What is Kaizen? What is a Kaizen Event?

Continuous improvement (CI) or Kaizen is the daily practice of creating small changes using low-cost common-sense solutions.  In my post, Take Baby Steps for Continuous Improvement, there is a little history of how Kaizen was born.  Continuous improvement involves everyone in the organization, improving processes everywhere, every day.   

Since the goal of lean is to deliver to the customer the highest quality, at the shortest lead time, at the lowest possible cost, kaizen focus is quality, cost, and delivery.  Kaizen’s major activities are 5S, standardization, and waste elimination.  Daily execution of these three activities drives incremental improvement that brings dramatic results over time.

Daily CI is important to tackle small problems before they become big ones.  The inspiration for daily kaizen comes from observation of frequent deviations from the standard, or ideas to improve the process.  However, sometimes we have challenges that require a more methodical approach.  When that happens, a Kaizen event comes to the rescue.  Recurrent problems that affect productivity or KPI performance are a good candidate for an event.  

A CI or Kaizen event is focused on one problem or improvement idea at a time.  The goal is to accomplish dramatic improvements in 2-7 days period.  These are rapid events, short, and based on common-sense solutions with very low or no-cost at all.  The understanding of the problem, and kaizen planning are critical for success.  It is also important to standardize the way of performing kaizen, everybody should follow the same steps and document the execution of those steps in the same way.  A good method to ensure the problem-solving activity is standardize is using PDCA.

When it is done correctly, kaizen not only improve quality, cost, and delivery.  It also helps the heart of the lean system, the people.  It does so by eliminating safety hazards, simplifying processes, and teaching people how to identify opportunities, and improve their processes.  In my next post, I will discuss the general steps to perform a kaizen event.

CI Tools

Take Baby Steps for Continuous Improvement

How do we learn to walk? The first step is crawling. As the babies become stronger will start pulling themselves up with the support of someone or something. Once they are up will learn balance and how to keep themselves up without any help. The next stage is walking with the mom or dad’s help, learning how to move their legs to take steps. Their curiosity will drive them to use that learning to wander around the house, using the furniture as support. They build confidence in their skills and keep practicing. Those small steps show them how much independence they gain, and they don’t want to lose it. One step at a time, they finally learn to walk.

The business process improvement is very similar. The goal is clear you want to thrive during good times and survive the inevitable challenges and economic downturns. You know that you need to improve your processes to accomplish on-time delivery of quality goods or services at the lowest cost. You want to change but do not have a clear idea of how. Like the baby learning to walk, you need to take small steps, one at a time.

Continuous improvement (CI) or Kaizen is the daily practice of creating small changes using low-cost common-sense solutions. Before you start complaining about the Japanese words, let me explain its origins. The USA Department of War created in the early 40’s a training program named Training Within Industry (TWI). It was developed within the industry to help ramp up the production of war materials and equipment. TWI introduced the concepts of job instruction training and job methods. Job instruction training teaches the “one best way” to do the work, which we now call standard work. Job Methods taught employees how to break down jobs into smaller steps questioning each one as a way to generate improvement ideas. As a result, a high volume of small incremental improvements from individuals was delivered.

After World War II, the American occupation forces brought in experts to Japan to help to rebuild their industry. Edward Deming introduced TWI, and the Japanese love it so much that they give it a Japanese name, Kaizen. Kaizen comes from two words, Kai (change) and Zen (good). It is commonly translated as a change for good or continuous improvement (CI). The strength of CI comes from the participation of workers, of all levels, in the business improving effort. These efforts are driven by three major activities, standardization, 5S, and waste elimination.

By approaching change in small, incremental steps, CI reduces the fear of change. Like the babies learning to walk, the small steps increase your confidence to keep trying until you find success. If you need help on your journey, reach out, I can help!

This article was originally posted by Jina Rivera in Organization and Efficiency Solutions.