The Job Breakdown Sheet is used as part of the Job Instruction program to breakdown the job into the smaller steps that make it up. The Job Breakdown Sheet is used as part of the Job Instruction program to breakdown the job into the smaller steps that make it up. We do this because it is easier to understand and learn each step at a time. As described in my last post, the form contains the job steps (what), key points (how), reasons (why).
Let’s use one example to explain better how to use the sheet. The process or operation that I will use is how to cook a sunny-side egg.
The top of the form contains general information such as what is the process and what you need to do the job. You will need to list all ingredients, materials, equipment, and tools need to cook two eggs.
The breakdown section has the important steps, those that advance the work, change or transform the materials or ingredients, or adds value. Use action verbs or phrases to start the description. For each step, add the corresponding key points and reasons. The key points are critical information that will help to avoid injuries, ensure the quality of the product, or make the job easier. Use adjectives or adverbs to add this information. The part called Reason is used to explain why the step is important. It is used to support safety, quality, delivery, or cost objectives.
Please see below the Job Breakdown Sheet example, use it as a reference, to breakdown one of your jobs.
One of our responsibilities as leaders is to keep our team and customers safe. These days that means that we have to incorporate the CDC guidance for cleaning and disinfecting public areas and workplaces. How we make sure that our staff follows the instructions? How do we redesign our processes to ensure the appropriate distancing? To ensure effective procedures, you will need to create standard work to ensure understanding and execution, as well as communication and training.
In my post Standardization and problems, how to create standard work to reduce problems?, I mentioned the general steps to create standard work. The first step is to understand the process for which we will develop the standard work. Although maybe you want to go straight to creating the standard, the right way to do it is to improve the process first. Why? Because if you currently have problems, it is because the process needs improvements. The following are the three steps to understand the process.
Identify and learn the process
Understand the job sequence
Find out the process parameters
Identify and learn the process
Ask what is the purpose of this process, what is supposed to accomplish? What is the value for the customer? Does the current pandemic affect what the customer wants? It is important to have a clear understanding of what you want to accomplish with this process, what is the target condition you expect from it.
Go to the place where value is created, where the action happens, what in lean we call the gemba. Study the process without going into specifics, take a general look at the flow of materials and people. If you would like to minimize the areas on which employees and customers cross each other, drawing a spaghetti chart will help you to visualize those patterns. You can use the same tool to see how the information or materials travel through the process. Identify where the flow stops, look for waste, such as waiting, delays, excess inventory, and others. Respectfully ask your team about those areas, how they feel, what they think? Take note to remember those key points that you will use while understanding the job sequence.
Understand the Job Sequence
Armed with general knowledge about the process, break the job down into smaller logical steps. We use the template called “Job Breakdown Sheet” to document this part. This sheet is from the Job Instruction program, which is part of the leadership development program Training Within Industry.
A step is a logical segment of the operation when something happens to advance the job. The job advances when it changes form, fit, function, or adds value. For each step, you will fill out what, how, and why. What is the section where the step description goes.
Key points are important pieces of information that can make or break the job. On this section, you listed what is important to ensure safety, achieve quality, or make the job easier. Include the best practices to perform the step as part of the key points. The last section is to explain the why for each key point. It is easier to remember a step, if you know why it is important. Also, this is a good place to explain why the best practices are important, how they are aligned with safety, quality, delivery and safety objectives.
Find out the process parameters
After you learned the work sequence, it is time to add more information that will help to develop the new job method. One of the components of standard work is the rate at which products must be produced to meet customer demand. To get this number, you need to know the customer demand. Another piece of information that you need to gather at this time is cycle time, how much it takes to complete the job sequence.
In my next posts, I will explain more about the tools I mentioned here, spaghetti chart and Job Breakdown Sheet.
In continuous improvement, we define a problem as a deviation from the standard. That is a difference between what should be happening and what is actually happening. That gap is a problem. Standardization is the practice of setting, communicating, following, and improving standards and standard work.
But what happens when there are no standards? How do you know that you have a problem? Normally you know because a situation that does not feel right is jumping at you, other times those situations are screaming at you. Those screams are usually in the form of complaints, delays, errors, or performance variation. How do you choose where to start?
There are different prioritization criteria that you can use to determine what process you will tackle first. You can choose the process based on volume, the effect it has on the problem you are looking at, or how much influence it has over the cost of operation. If you never create a standard before, my advice is to start with a small process. This will give you the chance to learn the basics before digging into a bigger problem.
The development of a standard begins with the problem we are trying to solve. What is the target condition? What should be happening? What can you do to ensure you met the target condition every time? Do not try to set your current process as the standard, if you have problems it is obvious that the current process needs improvements. That is why you need to understand the current situation, find the root cause of the problems, and improve the current process before creating standard work. In general, the following are the steps to create standard work.
Understand the process, break down the job & question every detail
Develop a new method for performing the job
Run the process and observe results
If it is necessary, adapt the process and go back to step 4.
When you find the best method, create the standard
Standard work does not make any good if it is not communicated. For that reason, training is the next logical step. While creating the standard, engage the help of some members of the team. They have the knowledge and experience that will facilitate the creation of the standard. Also, this would be a teaching opportunity to develop their skills. Train supervisors, team leaders, and other members of the team. Use visual management if it is possible and have the standard work available for reference.
Now that you have standard work for that process, identify the next process, and keep improving. Standard work is the foundation for improvements, they provide the baseline to process improvements. Once established, stabilized it, and improve it!
Standard Work (SW) is a simple written description of the safest, highest quality, and most efficient way to execute a particular task. Once established, it becomes the only acceptable way to do the process it describes. Effective documentation and training are key to standard work success. Use a template to ensure that all the standard work or work instructions look and contain the same parts or components.
The three components
Job sequence to complete the job
The rate at which products must be produced to meet customer demand (takt time)
The standard amount of work in process inventory
Relevant information to include with the job sequence
Key points related to anything that can make or break the job
Information that addresses safety issues or risks
Instructions or knowledge that help performance such as, what makes the job easier or ensure quality.
Explains why the step is important
Characteristics of effective work instructions
Simple and clear, easy to understand by everybody.
Complete, it shows the steps to do the job and other relevant information.
Accurate, the document reflects the current process.
Concise, it contains important information only.
A work instruction is not effective, regardless of how good the document is if the training is not adequate. If your idea of training is to bring a group of people to a room to read the work instruction, you should rethink the training method. How effective do you think this type of training is? How can you be sure that everybody understood the instructions?
The work instruction by itself is not a training tool, it needs to be supported by other teaching methods. To be effective, the instructor should tell and show how to do the job. The following are some general guidelines.
Demonstrate the job step by step while explaining the key points and why things are done a certain way.
Repeat the steps as many times as you think it is necessary before asking the employee to try.
Observe the employee doing the job.
Ask to explain the key concepts and whys, make sure they understand.
Follow-up on their performance, observe and correct if it is necessary.
Create a safe and respectful environment.
Make sure they know who to ask if they have doubts or find a problem.
Check-in with the employee often, until you are completely sure that he/she understands the job.
Many organizations fail to implement standard work. As a result, perceived gains through Kaizen may be lost over time, and the status quo prevails. The standard work is not set in stone, it is the baseline for continuous improvement. When the process change, the standard work is updated.
Standard work is important to ensure everybody follows the same guidelines, and the process is stable. That way, the customer will consistently receive their product or service on time, with the best quality, and at the lower possible cost.
How do we learn to walk? The first step is crawling. As the babies become stronger will start pulling themselves up with the support of someone or something. Once they are up will learn balance and how to keep themselves up without any help. The next stage is walking with the mom or dad’s help, learning how to move their legs to take steps. Their curiosity will drive them to use that learning to wander around the house, using the furniture as support. They build confidence in their skills and keep practicing. Those small steps show them how much independence they gain, and they don’t want to lose it. One step at a time, they finally learn to walk.
The business process improvement is very similar. The goal is clear you want to thrive during good times and survive the inevitable challenges and economic downturns. You know that you need to improve your processes to accomplish on-time delivery of quality goods or services at the lowest cost. You want to change but do not have a clear idea of how. Like the baby learning to walk, you need to take small steps, one at a time.
Continuous improvement (CI) or Kaizen is the daily practice of creating small changes using low-cost common-sense solutions. Before you start complaining about the Japanese words, let me explain its origins. The USA Department of War created in the early 40’s a training program named Training Within Industry (TWI). It was developed within the industry to help ramp up the production of war materials and equipment. TWI introduced the concepts of job instruction training and job methods. Job instruction training teaches the “one best way” to do the work, which we now call standard work. Job Methods taught employees how to break down jobs into smaller steps questioning each one as a way to generate improvement ideas. As a result, a high volume of small incremental improvements from individuals was delivered.
After World War II, the American occupation forces brought in experts to Japan to help to rebuild their industry. Edward Deming introduced TWI, and the Japanese love it so much that they give it a Japanese name, Kaizen. Kaizen comes from two words, Kai (change) and Zen (good). It is commonly translated as a change for good or continuous improvement (CI). The strength of CI comes from the participation of workers, of all levels, in the business improving effort. These efforts are driven by three major activities, standardization, 5S, and waste elimination.
By approaching change in small, incremental steps, CI reduces the fear of change. Like the babies learning to walk, the small steps increase your confidence to keep trying until you find success. If you need help on your journey, reach out, I can help!
This article was originally posted by Jina Rivera in Organization and Efficiency Solutions.
One common mistake for a manager or business owner is trying to “fix” problems looking at reports. Those reports are full of old information. They are good to know what happened, but they don’t tell the whole story.
If you are a basketball coach, you won’t try to call the shots just by looking at your team stats from the office. You will go to the basketball court, where the action is. You will observe how the individual members of the team react to the defense or offense play of the rival team. If you see something wrong, you will ask for a time out to discuss a change in strategy. You are observing every move, focusing on what the team needs to do to improve their game, and win. You can not be effective in doing the same thing looking at the score only.
As a business owner, when problems arise with a specific process, you need to do the same thing. Always go to the area where the action happens first. If it is a problem with customer service, observe how your employees interact with customers. If it is an issue related to the quality of the food, try it yourself. Does it look and taste as it should?
Sometimes it is not obvious what is wrong. In that case, focus your attention on the process tools, equipment, and standard work. On the food quality example, you confirm something is off with the quality but don’t know what. Focus your attention on how close is the execution to the standard work or recipe. Observe if the cooks are using the right ingredients, the right quantity, or following the recipe steps.
As soon as you find out the issue, take a temporary fix on the spot. This temporary fix will not solve the problem. To fix it, you need to find the root cause of the problem. Do not try to guess or assign a cause based on your experience, engage the team on this exercise. Once you know the cause or causes of the problem, you can plan how to fix it. To prevent a recurrence, you need to update the standard work.
To succeed in your continuous improvement journey, follow these simple rules while fixing problems.
When a problem arises, go to the place where the action or process happens first
Check all the relevant things: equipment, tools, materials, standard work
Take temporary solutions on the spot
Find the root cause
Standardize to prevent a recurrence
To acquire knowledge, one must study; but to acquire wisdom, one must observe. – Marilyn Vos Savant
You need to measure what you want to improve. A metric is a measurement you use to track and assess the condition of a process. It gives you information about how the process is working and provides a baseline for improvements. After each improvement cycle, the resulting value is the new goal for your process parameter.
You use the current value of a metric or process parameter to know whether the process meets the goal or it needs adjustment. For example, the safe internal temperature for cooked chicken is 165° Fahrenheit. That value is the process parameter goal. If at the end of the process the actual temperature is 165° or more, the chicken is safely cooked. If it is less than 165°, you need to adjust. In this case, you adjust the process by cooking the chicken a little longer until it reaches the goal. How do you get the expected results every time?
In this example, you have a recipe. That document states all the ingredients and the instructions to cook the chicken. It includes the oven temperature setting and a range of time to cook the chicken. Also, it includes the process parameter goal, the cooking temperature for the chicken. This goal is the standard, a target established by an authority as a measure of quantity, weight, value, or quality that will determine the success of the process. If you follow those instructions, every time the chicken will be cooked and will taste about the same.
Standard Work (SW) is a simple written description to perform a task. SW is the safest, highest quality, and most efficient way to execute a particular task. Once you establish SW, it becomes the only acceptable way to do the process it describes. It contains the sequence of steps to complete the task, the rate at which products must be completed to meet customer demand, and the standard amount of work in process inventory. The sequence of steps contains also vital information that can break or make the process, such as the process parameters, and their goals.
Update the standard work every time a process parameter or the steps change. Training for Supervisors and employees is critical to ensure everybody follows the standard. After training, it is time to improve again!